What Really Happened With The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Disaster
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was an industrial disaster that began on 20 April , in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect, considered to be the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8 to 31 percent larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill, also in the Gulf of Mexico. In , the AIOC became the British Petroleum Company. After the Iranian coup d'etat, Iranian Oil Participants Ltd (IOP), a holding company, was founded in October , in London to bring Iranian oil back to the international market. British Petroleum was a founding member of this company with 40% stake. IOP operated and managed oil facilities in Iran on behalf of NIOC.
As ofthe Deepwater Horizon oil spill is still considered the worst oil spill in the history of the United States. Located more than 5, feet below the water's surface, the well leaked for 87 days until it was capped, resulting in over 3 million barrels of oil pouring into the Gulf of Mexico.
After a bubble of methane triggered an explosion in the rig, numerous errors led to a failure of the safety equipment that would've prevented the successive oil spill. Later, britiish was also revealed that cost-cutting, time-saving methods used by Halliburton made a blow-out all but inevitable. Despite unprecedented government fines, BP reinvented themselves and went on to invest further in numerous oil and natural gas projects.
Simultaneously, more than ten years later, local wildlife and communities of people continue to suffer from the effects of the oil spill. This is the story of what really happened with the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster.
Built inDeepwater Horizon was an oil rig that operated in how to satisfy a woman videos Gulf of Mexico for approximately ten years before the BP oil spill.
According to Encyclopedia Britannicathe rig was primarily owned and operated by Transocean, an offshore-oil-drilling company, and through them it was leased to British Petroleum LLCor BP, under long-term contract until September Although the Deepwater Horizon had a rated drilling depth capacity of 30, feet, according to Transoceanin early Deepwater Horizon drilled to a depth of 35, feet.
And it's not unlikely that the unprecedented depths contributed to the severity of the explosion. Every feet of added depth increases the likelihood of a serious accident, such as fire or explosion, by 8.
The oil well that the Deepwater Horizon was positioned over had been temporarily sealed with a concrete core, and while the Deepwater Horizon was still positioned above the Macondo well, a surge of natural gas blasted through the concrete on April 20, Traveling up Deepwater Horizon's rig iol, the natural gas ignited on the platform, resulting in an explosion that killed 11 workersinjured 17 others, and capsized the rig.
The rig sank two days later on April 22, at which point it ruptured the marine riser. A mile-long pipe, the riser injected drilling mud in order to counteract the pressure from the natural gas and oil. Without the resisting pressure, oil subsequently began to pour into the Gulf of Mexico from the damaged wellhead pipe.
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationalthough the blowout preventer should've been automatically triggered when the explosions occurred, automatic functions failed due to improper maintenance. Subsequent attempts to "operate the blowout preventer with remotely operated vehicles on the ocean floor also failed. Investigations later revealed that not only did Halliburton know that the cement mixture they used for the concrete core was flawed but that BP had experienced and covered-up " a nearly identical blow-out " two years prior on an oil rig in the Caspian Sea.
In the end, both concrete cores installed by Halliburton used a "quick-dry" method that led to the cement being unable to withstand intense pressure. Engineers tried repeatedly to stop the flow but to little avail.
According to The Guardianit took ten different attempts to cap the Macondo well. One attempt involved putting a dome over one of the leaks, an approach known in the industry as a " top hat. A "capping stack," a cap on top of the blowout preventer, installed on July 10 was ultimately successful.
This gave the engineers enough time to pour cement and mud into the well in order to reduce pressure and staunch the who is online on whatsapp on July 15,petroleu 87 days of continuous flow.
During this time, two rigs were also simultaneously drilling two relief wells to intercept the flow of the Macondo well. It was through these relief happenev that cement was poured in, permanently sealing the Macondo well on Sept. Within one month, more than 3 million gallons of crude oil had poured into the Gulf of Mexico. Five months after the explosion, the well was permanently sealed on Sept.
But by that point, upwards of million gallons of crude oil had been released into the gulf, covering over 15, square miles at its maximum extent and affecting over 16, miles of coastline, stretching from Texas to Florida.
While some of the oil floated to the surface and formed oil slicks, some oil remained suspended in the water, creating oil plumes. According to PBSthis was the result of several factors, including the depth of the leak as well as the fact that "BP sprayed 1. Unfortunately, all of this makes it difficult to determine exactly how much oil spilled into the gulf.
According to pertoleum National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationhritish also estimated that at least "7. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationfire teams were directed to heavily concentrated areas of oil, and after containing "a sufficient amount of oil using fire boom While some burns were short in their duration, others what kind of pressure washer do i need several hours.
Controlled burns were limited to areas with burnable amounts of surface oil, and despite covering a comparatively small area, large amounts of aerosolized black whxt soot were released into the atmosphere.
According to the Yale School of the Environmentbetween 1. There were various wgat efforts associated with the BP oil spill. One of the methods often used for oil spills are dispersants, which are chemicals that break the oil down so that it's more easily dissolved by the water. However, in addition to the unforeseen effect of contributing to oil plumesthe combination of oil and dispersant may be almost 50 times more toxic to microscopic wildlife than oil itself.
In addition to the nearly 2 million gallons of dispersant, there were numerous other cleanup efforts for the oil spill. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationmechanical surface skimmers were used to remove oil from the surface of the water, covering both nearshore and offshore waters.
Between April and mid-July, efforts increased from 26 skimming vessels to different vessels. As attempts to stem the flow of oil from the well failed, water from the Mississippi River was released to keep the oil from moving into marshes and shoreline areas. However, this was used for such an extended period of time that the salinization levels of the Louisiana coastal areas were greatly affected. And unfortunately, according to The Guardianit's highly unlikely that the cleanup efforts will ever remove every bit of oil.
And with oil buried beneath the sand, it ends up remobilizing during every hurricane season. Not only was BP aware of the potential failure of its concrete core before it occurred, but after the explosion, they repeatedly downplayed the severity of the leak. According to The Guardianan internal memo okl that BP's assessment of the leak was roughly 20 times larger than the estimate that it gave brifish public.
While BP initially said that the leak was gushing how to play vcd on windows xp, barrels a day, their internal memo projected a potentialbarrels a day. At its peak, the well was leaking between 60, to 80, barrels a day.
In addition britixh lying to the public, BP lied to regulators about their preparation for a spill of this size.
And in the end, "everything was guesswork. No one how to fix nail holes in wall how much oil is still down there. After the oil spill, BP also poured millions of dollars into a publicity campaign to repair their image. In the end, a New Orleans judge ruled that BP was most at fault. According to Time MagazineinU. Although Barbier described their conduct as negligent and reckless, BP was the only one who faced any fines.
The oil industry as a whole also tried to distance themselves sill BP and " make the disaster appear to be a one-off event. And spills don't only occur in oil wells. Oil pipelines across the U. InBP pled guilty to "14 criminal counts for its illegal conduct leading to and after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Overall, the counts included felony manslaughter, felony obstruction, and violation of the Clean Water and Migratory Bird Treaty Acts.
However, despite a claimed attempt to hold individuals accountablemanslaughter charges were dropped by According to The Advocatethe U. Justice Department claimed this was because "circumstances surrounding the case have changed since it was originally charged. Bythe Justice Department's probe into " four, mostly lower-level BP employees " had come to a close. Rig supervisor Donald Vidrine pled guilty in exchange for ten months probation. Former BP Vice President David Rainey was acquitted of obstruction, and engineer Karl Mix received six months probation after pleading guilty to damaging a computer.
Petro,eum than ahat hours of community service and monetary fines, BP, Transocean, and Halliburtan suffered little-to-no repercussions. The Deepwater Horizon disaster had short and long-term effects on people's physical and mental health.
These health impacts were found in both cleanup workers and people living near the affected shorelines. According to Frontiers in Public Healtha study assessing the long-term health effects found that those who were involved in the oil spill cleanup suffered from disorders in their heart, lung, blood, and liver function. Symptoms also appeared to persist at least top diabetes skin conditions and how to spot them years after the exposure to the oil spill.
Some oil cleanup workers also assert that BP forbade them from using respirators and didn't inform them about the hazards of Corexit, the dispersant used, resulting in damaged memory and lung capacity.
And according to the Earth Institute at Columbia Universitychildren living in the area also suffered from physical and mental health problems as a result of happenex oil spill. Even children with indirect exposure through their parents were found to be much more likely to have physical health problems. People who've suffered health problems as a result of BP continue to file lawsuits against BPand residents and workers in the Gulf Coast can continue to find out if they're eligible to join a lawsuit and receive compensation from an existing settlement.
In the first six months after the spill, over 8, marine animals and seabirds were found injured or dead. Oil covered the feathers of hundreds of seabirds, rendering them unable to fly, float, or regulate their body temperature.
According to the Smithsonian Instituteseabirds that ingested oil suffered from a myriad of health problems ranging from hypothermia to decreased eggshell thickness. Countless eggs were also crushed by workers during the cleanup. Init was estimated thatseabirds died as result of the spill, but it's possible that the number is as high as two million. More thansea turtles are also believed wwhat have died because of the spill, and whta of both sea turtles and dolphins increased in the time after the spill.
Deep sea corals also suffered and were found dead and dying how to use enjo kitchen glove to seven bbritish away from the Macondo well. According to the National Wildlife Federationit could take "decades and decades —- if not hundreds of years" for the coral affected by the Deepwater Horizon disaster british petroleum oil spill what happened recover.
And since coral grows and reproduces so slowly, some of the how to make your own photo christmas cards for free have yet to be seen. The only animals that seemingly benefited hapepned the oil spill were a select group of bacteria that consume oil, who were able to flourish in the plumes of oil.
How to live in the netherlands years later, many animal and human populations in the area are still struggling against the effects of the BP oil spill. And according to National Geographicmany letroleum the symptoms that are suffered by wildlife communities, like dolphins, are mirrored british petroleum oil spill what happened the human populations around the Gulf of Mexico — symptoms that include heart issues, lung disease, higher rates of reproductive failure, and death.
More than million gallons of oil is also thought to have landed on the seafloor, and even ten years after the spill, researchers are unsure whether or not the oil is getting "resuspended into the water and affecting cetaceans' food.
Within days of a year-long ban being lifted, BP won 24 oil contracts from the U. According to The Conversationas ofthere's still no legislation to increase a company's liability for an oil spill, and inthe Trump administration relaxed or completely reversed existing safety reforms. There was also a complete denial by BP that the oil ever british petroleum oil spill what happened Mexico, but ten years after the spill, fishing communities in Mexico continue to feel the impact of decimated briish populations and "have not received a single cent in compensation.
The explosion of Deepwater Horizon U. Cleaning up with controlled burns U.
Apr 13, · Deepwater Horizon oil spill, largest marine oil spill in history, caused by an April 20, , explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig—located in the Gulf of Mexico, approximately 41 miles (66 km) off the coast of Louisiana—and its subsequent sinking on April BP PLC, formerly called Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Ltd. (–35), Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, Ltd. (–54), British Petroleum Company Limited (–82), British Petroleum Company PLC (–98), and BP Amoco (–), British petrochemical corporation that became one of the world’s largest oil companies through its merger with the Amoco Corporation of the United States in . The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is recognized as the worst oil spill in U.S. history. Within days of the April 20, explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico that killed 11 people, underwater cameras revealed the damaged wellhead pipe was leaking oil and gas on the ocean floor about 42 miles off the coast of Louisiana.
BP plc official styling BP p. It is one of the world's seven oil and gas " supermajors ". It also has renewable energy interests in biofuels , wind power , smart grid and solar technology.
As of 31 December [update] , BP had operations in nearly 80 countries worldwide, produced around 3. In Russia, BP owns a In the Forbes Global , BP was ranked as the th-largest public company in the world. British Petroleum acquired majority control of Standard Oil of Ohio in Formerly majority state-owned, the British government privatised the company in stages between and BP has been directly involved in several major environmental and safety incidents.
The , Deepwater Horizon oil spill , the largest accidental release of oil into marine waters in history, which leaked about 4. From to , BP was responsible for 1.
In May , a group of British geologists discovered a large amount of oil at Masjed Soleyman located in the Khuzestan Province in southwest of nowadays Iran. It was the first commercially significant find of oil in the Middle East. William Knox D'Arcy , by contract with Ali-Qoli Khan Bakhtiari , obtained permission to explore for oil for the first time in the Middle East,  an event which changed the history of the entire region.
The oil discovery led to petrochemical industry development and also the establishment of industries that strongly depended on oil. Some of the shares were sold to the public. The refinery was built and began operating in It also acquired the controlling stake in the Courchelettes refinery in France and formed, in conjunction with the Government of Australia , a partnership named Commonwealth Oil Refineries , which built the Australian's first refinery in Laverton, Victoria.
TPC finally struck oil in Iraq on 14 October The partnership was equally owned but operated by Shell. The oil concession rights were awarded to the company on 23 December and the company started drilling operations in In , Iraq Petroleum Company , After several years of failure to discover oil in the Sultanate's region, IPC presumed that oil was more likely to be found in the interior region of Oman, which was part of the Imamate of Oman.
IPC offered financial support to raise an armed force that would assist the Sultanate in occupying the interior region of Oman. Later, in , the Sultan of Muscat, backed by the British government and the financial aid he received from IPC, started occupying regions within the interior of Oman, which led to the outbreak of Jebel Akhdar War that lasted for more than 5 years. In , the company was renamed British Hydrocarbon Chemicals.
In March , Razmara was assassinated and Mohammed Mossadeq , a nationalist, was elected as the new prime minister by the Majlis of Iran parliament. In , British Petroleum entered the Canadian market through the purchase of a minority stake in Calgary-based Triad Oil Company, and expanded further to Alaska in , resulting discovery of oil at Prudhoe Bay in Africa Ltd. By the s, British Petroleum had developed a reputation for taking on the riskiest ventures.
It earned the company massive profits; it also earned them the worst safety record in the industry. In , the giant oil tanker Torrey Canyon foundered off the English coast. Over 32 million US gallons , bbl; , m 3 of crude oil was spilled into the Atlantic and onto the beaches of Cornwall and Brittany, causing Britain's worst-ever oil spill.
The company's oil assets were nationalised in Libya in , in Kuwait in , and in Nigeria in The intensified power struggle between oil companies and host governments in Middle East, along with the oil price shocks that followed the oil crisis meant British Petroleum lost most of its direct access to crude oil supplies produced in countries that belonged to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC , and prompted it to diversify its operations beyond the heavily Middle East dependent oil production.
In , the company acquired a controlling interest in Standard Oil of Ohio Sohio. In —s, BP diversified into coal , minerals and nutrition businesses which all were divested later. In November , the Kuwait Investment Office purchased a Peter Walters was the company chairman from to In , Standard Oil of California was renamed to Chevron Corporation ; and it bought Gulf Oil—the largest merger in history at that time.
Walters was replaced by Robert Horton in Horton carried out a major corporate downsizing exercise, removing various tiers of management at the head office.
The company was a manufacturer and installer of photovoltaic solar cells. It became wholly owned by British Petroleum in the mids. British Petroleum entered the Russian market in and opened its first service station in Moscow in In , the company entered into Azerbaijani market.
In , it signed the production sharing agreement for the Azeri—Chirag—Guneshli oil project and in for the Shah Deniz gas field development. Under John Browne, British Petroleum acquired other oil companies, transforming BP into the third largest oil company in the world. Later that year, BP became an operator of the pipeline and increased its stake up to As part of the merger's brand awareness, the company helped the Tate Modern gallery of British Art launch RePresenting Britain — In the beginning of the s, BP became the leading partner and later operator of the Baku—Tbilisi—Ceyhan pipeline project which opened a new oil transportation route from the Caspian region.
In , BP's olefins and derivatives business was moved into a separate entity which was sold to Ineos in On 23 March , 15 workers were killed and more than injured in the Texas City Refinery explosion. To save money, major upgrades to the refinery had been postponed.
Inspections revealed other shoddy work. Repairs costing hundreds of millions would keep Thunder Horse out of commission for three years. Lord Browne resigned from BP on 1 May The head of exploration and production Tony Hayward became the new chief executive. On 20 April , the Deepwater Horizon oil spill , a major industrial accident, happened. Government temporarily banned BP from bidding any new federal contracts.
The ban was conditionally lifted in March In —, BP cut down its alternative energy business. The company announced its departure from the solar energy market in December by closing its solar power business, BP Solar. In , BP acquired Chargemaster , which operated the UK's largest electric vehicle charging network.
The business was focused on aromatics and acetyls. It had interests in 14 plants in Asia, Europe and the U. The deal is expected to be completed at the first half of As of 31 December [update] , BP had operations in 78 countries worldwide  with the global headquarters in London, United Kingdom.
BP operations are organized into three business segments, Upstream , Downstream , and renewables. Since , BP has annually published its Statistical Review of World Energy , which is considered an energy industry benchmark. BP has a major corporate campus in Sunbury-on-Thames which is home to around 3, employees and over 50 business units.
BP has three major research and development centres in the UK. There are 1, BP service stations in the UK. The United States operations comprise nearly one-third of BP's operations. BP operates nine onshore wind farms in six states, and held an interest in another in Hawaii with a net generating capacity of 1, MW.
BP is active in offshore oil development in Angola, where it holds an interest in a total of nine oil exploration and production blocks covering more than 30, square kilometres 12, sq mi. BP has a stake in exploration of two blocks of offshore deepwater assets in the South China Sea. BP has major liquefied natural gas activities in Indonesia, where it operates the Tangguh LNG project, which began production in and has a capacity of 7.
Block 61 is one of Oman's largest gas blocks with a daily production capacity of 1. It covers around 3,km in central Oman and contains the largest tight gas development in the Middle East. It also and develops the Shafag-Asiman complex of offshore geological structures.
BP's refining operations in continental Europe include Europe's second-largest oil refinery, located in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, which can process up to , barrels 59, m 3 of crude oil per day. As of December [update] , BP holds a It purchases crude oil for the company's refineries in the United States, has three oil sands holdings in Alberta,  and four offshore blocks in Nova Scotia. BP is the largest oil and gas producer in Trinidad and Tobago , where it holds more than 1, square kilometres sq mi of offshore assets and is the largest shareholder in Atlantic LNG , one of the largest LNG plants in Western Hemisphere.
BP Upstream's activities include exploring for new oil and natural gas resources, developing access to such resources, and producing, transporting, storing and processing oil and natural gas. In , BP produced around 3. BP downstream's activities include the refining, marketing, manufacturing, transportation, trading and supply of crude oil and petroleum products.
It has operations in over 50 countries worldwide. BP Shipping provides the logistics to move BP's oil and gas cargoes to market, as well as marine structural assurance. BP Shipping's chartering teams based in London, Singapore, and Chicago also charter third party vessels on both time charter and voyage charter basis.
All of these ships are double-hulled. BP has around 18, service stations worldwide. Castrol is BP's main brand for industrial and automotive lubricants and is applied to a large range of BP oils, greases and similar products for most lubrication applications. BP was the first of supermajors expanding its focus on energy sources other than fossil fuels. BP operates nine wind farms in seven states of the U. As of [update] , Lightsource has commissioned 1.
Production is expected to begin in BP is a majority shareholder in carbon offset developer Finite Carbon.