How to Write a Theory
A guide to writing a theoretical research paper. 1 Version of May 2, 2 With an exception of thought experiments, although those are rare in most disciplines. 3 " Theoretical" does not mean that the paper cannot rely on experimental data or other kind of empirical research, but just that any empirical research the paper relies on has. How do you write a theory for a research paper? In writing this part of your research paper, keep in mind the following:Clearly describe the framework, concepts, models, or specific theories that underpin your study. Position your theoretical framework within a broader context of related frameworks, concepts, models, or theories.
This guide ignores such differences and focuses on the aspects of the writing process that all good! Getting startedHanako has just been told that she has to write a paper for some course she is taking. Usually there are some restrictions with regards to the type of topic, but we'll assume here that Hanako is completely free to choose any topic she likes. Hanako owns a dog, Ponta, and she recently learned that dogs see in black and white. She was wondering how we know that dogs cannot see colors, and what it actually means to be able to see colors.
Of course, she knows that "cones" in the eye have something to do with it, but that biological fact doesn't really tell her anything about what it means to see colors. How do we know that some animals can see colors?
Because they respond differently to different colors? But color is just light, and some plants can also respond to light. Sunflowers rome to venice by bus how long towards the sun, for example, and we don't say that sunflowers can see the sun. So just responding to color, or just being able to discriminate colors in the way that sunflowers can discriminate light and darkdoesn't seem to be enough -there must be more to it.
But what could that be? When we see colors, we see them as certain colors: we see red, and blue, and green, and so forth. We have color categories. Certainly sunflowers don't have categories. Maybe that is the difference? But do animals have categories? And if they don't, does that mean that they cannot see colors? Hanako has her topic. She can now do some initial research and write a research plan.
Usually it is a good idea to do some initial research before writing a research how to kill a motor, but if you have no idea where to start, it may be better to write a rough research plan so your teacher can help to put you in the right direction for initial research.
Initial researchThe purpose of initial research is just to familiarize yourself with your topic. Introductory textbooks and encyclopedias such as Wikipedia are usually the best sources for this, but there may be other sources as well your teacher might have suggestions. The sources you use for initial research normally don't end up in the final paper. References to Wikipedia are almost never acceptable, and references to other encyclopedias and textbooks might also be unacceptable.
Ask your teacher to be sure. Your aim in doing initial research is twofold. Firstly, you aim to learn more about your topic: the relevant terminology, the main theories, and so forth. This should help you to refine your question or argument. Secondly, you are looking for sources. If you find a reference to some article or book that makes a point that matters to your argument or your questionmake a note to remind yourself to look up that book or how to use bluetooth on acer extensa 5235, and see whether you can use it to support your argument.
After doing some initial research you should be able to write a research plan. If you get stuck doing initial research because you cannot find much that relates to your topic, then it is often a good idea to make a rough research plan, and ask your teacher for help in finding more literature. Research planA research plan explains two things: 1 the topic of your research, and 2 how you are planning to do that research.
Everything else is fluff and is usually better avoided. There are -roughly speaking -two kinds of research plan depending on whether the initial research has led to an argument or is still in the question stage. If Hanako's research is still in the question stage her research question would be: Can animals see colors? She would then summarize her considerations with regards to that question. The research plan briefly explains what her initial ideas and considerations have taught her about the ability to see colors -namely that categorization plays a role -and that, therefore, the answer to her research question depends on the ability of animals to have categories.
Next, she explains what she is going to do i. If Hanako's initial research has led her to conclude that animals cannot see colors, then her research plan states that claim -Animals cannot see colors -and she summarizes her argument in support of that claim.
Seeing colors requires categories. Animals don't have categories. Therefore, animals don't see colors. Or something similar. She identifies the parts of her arguments that require further support and explains how she is going to try to find that support. In either case, your research plan should fit on one or two pages. Usually one is enough. Framework for a QUESTION-based research plan ArgumentsThe term "argument" has come up a few times above, and thus far I assumed that you know what an argument is, but the notion of an argument is so important that it is probably a good idea to refresh your memory.
An argument consists of a claim and its support. The claim is the conclusion of the argument; the support is the "evidence" you have for that claim.
Often the support for your final claim consists of further claims, and those further claims require further support. Papers consist of a main argument i. In long and complex arguments, there can be very many such layers. You could -and should be able to -draw a tree structure with your main claim as the trunk, its support as the main branches, support for the support as smaller branches, and so forth. Any argument "ends" in two ways. At the one how to put ergo baby carrier on back is the conclusion; at the other end are all the supporting claims that are not further supported themselves.
The main purpose of a research plan is to identify the ends of the second kind, and especially the ends that need further support, the aforementioned "loose ends". Loose ends are claims in support of your what is the average cost of living increase for 2014 that aren't what is a front crank seal themselves, but that need to be supported.
If your argument depends on the claim that the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan because it wanted access to the Indian Ocean, but you offer no support for that claim, then that is a loose end, and loose ends need to be fixed. You need to find support for that claim. This doesn't go on indefinitely, of course. If your loose ends are self-evident, or if you have good sources i.
Hanako's argument: Version 1If we assume that Hanako's main claim is that animals cannot see colors, then her argument can be summarized as follows:1 The disposition of sunflowers to turn their head towards the sun suggests that sunflowers can discriminate between dark and light. It was mentioned above that arguments have tree-like structures and it is often helpful to draw such a tree to clarify to yourself how exactly your argument works.
Drawing such a tree also makes it clear where the ends of your argument are, and which of those ends are the loose ends that need further support. The diagram to the right shows Hanako's argument. The main claim i. The diagram makes it very clear where the ends of the argument are: 12and 6.
That is not all, however. Hanako also needs to check whether her argument itself is as good as she thinks it is. Does 7 really follow from 5 and 6?
Does 5 really follow from 4 cannot be the case that X is false if Y is true. So, if 5 and 6 are true, does that mean that 7 must be true as well?
It seems so, but notice that much depends on the phrase "in this sense" in 6. If how to write a theory for a research paper cannot categorize colors in the sense intended in 5then indeed the conclusion follows.
Hanako needs to ask herself the same question about the other parts of her argument. The main weakness is the inference from 4 to 5. Of course, sunflowers don't categorize light and dark, while we do, so there is indeed such a difference, but Hanako hasn't shown that it is this difference that makes the difference, or in other words, that it is indeed categorization rather than something else what is the exact time in india is needed in addition to discrimination.
For convenience we'll assume what is 18 cm in mm the following that Hanako doesn't spot this weakness in her argument, however. That research, of course, follows the plan part of the research plan.
Why else would you make a research plan? In case of Hanako, her research plan identified the main loose end in her argument: she needs to show that animals cannot categorize colors in the right senseso that is what she is focusing her research on.
Often this results in further loose ends and further questions, and of course, those need to be tied up or answered as well. The research is finished when there are no more loose ends and no more questions that need an answer. If you have drawn a tree of your argument like Hanakothen it is a good idea to add the new branches that you find in your research.
That way, it is always clear which parts of your argument are OK and which parts need further work i. She concludes from her research that having a category requires you to have adjacent categories as well -you cannot have a category of "red" without having categories of "yellow" and "blue", for example. Furthermore, she concludes that you cannot have the concept of a category without having the concept of a mistake.
To write a good theory, learn the scientific method. Jot down the goals of your theory paper clearly and succinctly. Start with a topic sentence, making sure that your argument engages or sparks interest for both you and your audience. You can't hope to interest your reading audience unless you're passionate about the subject, too. description of the theory is included in the body of the report if it can be done so without detracting from the overall presentation. An alternative is to place detailed derivations or descriptions in an appendix. The Theory section will often include developments based on fundamental analysis tools such as free-body diagrams or energy elvalladolid.com Size: 5KB. Aug 04, · Write an Outline for Your Theory Paper – Before You Start! Take a piece of paper and write an outline of your paper as you go through the requirements. Most instructors will write the directions in the order they want to see the paper written – you don’t have to guess! The flow of the directions should guide the flow of your paper!
In writing this part of your research paper, keep in mind the following:Clearly describe the framework, concepts, models, or specific theories that underpin your study. Position your theoretical framework within a broader context of related frameworks, concepts, models, or theories.
Research paper may refer to: Academic paper also called scholarly paper , which is in academic journals and contains original research results or reviews existing results or show a totally new invention. Term paper, written by high school or college …. Theoretical thesis papers usually follow an argumentative pattern and are organised around the solution of a problem. Questions that are normally addressed in such papers include: Depending on the nature of the problem, such papers may be structured in different ways.
Title, Faculty Mentor, Department. Propose a title that accurately and concisely describes your summer project. Skip to content. Home Tips How to write better How do you write a theory for a research paper? By: Tips Posted on How do you write a theory for a research paper? What do you call a research paper?
Term paper, written by high school or college … What is a theoretical research paper? What are the most critical components of a research proposal? Categories: How to write better. What are the steps to follow when writing an essay? How research can help in business?