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Italy is located in Southern Europe  and is also considered part italin Western Europe. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland Campione and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters Lampedusa. With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the MediterraneanItaly has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures.
In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mostly in insular Italy Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia of Southern Italywhile Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively.
An Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its how to pray to jesus for help on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of What is meant by 3g dongleNorth Africa and Asia.
By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became a leading cultural, political and religious centreinaugurating the Pax Romanaa period of more than years during which Italy's lawtechnologyeconomyartand literature developed.
During the Early Middle AgesItaly endured the fall of the Western Roman Empire and barbarian invasionsbut by the 11th century numerous rival city-states and maritime republicsmainly in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through jean, commerce and banking, laying the groundwork for itallan capitalism.
Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths. Nevertheless, Italy's commercial and how to get old coffee stains out of clothes power significantly waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean.
By the midth century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was almost entirely unified inestablishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the Italian Resistancethe country abolished their monarchyestablished a democratic Republic, enjoyed a prolonged economic boomand became a highly developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries,    with the world's eighth-largest economy by nominal GDP third in the European Unionsixth-largest national wealth and third-largest central bank gold reserve. It ranks very highly in life expectancyquality of life,  healthcare and education. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic wgat it is both a regional power   and a great power  and is ranked the world's eighth most-powerful military.
The source of many inventions and discoveriesthe country has long been a global centre of artmusicliteraturephilosophyscience and technologyand fashionand has greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields including cinemacuisinesportsjurisprudence, banking and business.
Hypotheses for the etymology of the name "Italia" are numerous. Lat vitulus "calf", Umb vitlo "calf". According to Antiochus of Syracusethe term Italy was used by the Greeks to initially refer only to the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula corresponding to the modern province of Reggio and part of the provinces of Catanzaro and Vibo Valentia in southern Italy.
Nevertheless, by his time the larger concept of Oenotria and "Italy" had become synonymous and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well.
According to Strabo 's Geographicabefore the expansion of the Roman Republicthe name was used by Greeks to indicate the land between wyat strait of Messina and the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Tarantocorresponding roughly to the current region of Calabria. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name "Italia" to a larger region  In addition to the "Greek Italy" in the south, historians have suggested the existence of an "Etruscan Italy" covering variable areas of central Italy.
The borders of Roman Italy, Italiaare better established. Cato's Originesthe first work of history composed in Latindescribed Italy as the entire peninsula south of the Alps. The northern area of Cisalpine Gaul was occupied by Rome in the s BC and became considered geographically and de facto maen of Italy,  but remained politically and de jure separated. It was legally merged into the administrative unit of Italy in 42 BC by the triumvir Octavian as a ratification of Caesar 's unpublished acts Acta Caesaris.
Thousands of Paleolithic -era itaoian have been recovered from Monte Poggiolo and dated to aroundyears before the present, making them the oldest evidence of first hominins habitation in the peninsula. The main historic peoples of possible non-Indo-European or pre-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans of central and northern Italy, the Elymians and the Sicani in Sicily, and the prehistoric Sardinianswho gave birth to the Nuragic civilisation.
Other ancient populations being of undetermined language families and of possible non-Indo-European origin include the Rhaetian people and Cammuniknown for their rock carvings in Valcamonicathe largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world. The first foreign colonizers were the Phoenicianswho initially established colonies and founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia.
Some of these soon became small urban centres and were developed parallel to the Greek colonies; among the main centres there were the cities of MotyaZyz modern PalermoSoluntum in Sicily and NoraSulciand Tharros in Sardinia. Between the 17th and the 11th centuries BC Mycenaean Greeks established contacts with Italy     and in the 8th and 7th centuries What is a kilojoule in nutrition a number of Greek colonies were established all along the coast of Sicily and the southern part of the Whta Peninsula, that became known as Magna Graecia.
The Greek colonization placed the Italic peoples in contact with democratic government forms and with elevated artistic and cultural expressions. The first foreign colonizers were the Phoenicianswho initially founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia. Some of these quickly become small urban centers and develop parallel to the Greek colonies ; among the main centers are the cities of MoziaZyzKfra in Sicily and NoraSulciTharros in Sardinia.
After the eighth century BCcolonizers from Greece settled on the coasts of southern Italy giving life to Magna Graecia and those of Sicily. The Greek colonization places how much does an apple laptop cost in india Italic peoples in contact with democratic forms italiqn government and with high artistic and cultural expressions.
Romea settlement around a ford on the river Tiber in central Italy conventionally founded in BC, was ruled for itallian period of years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings.
The Italian Peninsula, named Italiawas consolidated into a single entity during the Roman expansion and conquest of new lands at the expense of the other Italic tribesEtruscansCeltsand Greeks. A permanent association with most of the local tribes and cities was formed, and Rome began the conquest of Western Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East.
In the wake of Julius Caesar 's rise and death in the first century BC, Rome grew over the course of centuries into a massive how to reference a paper harvard stretching from Britain to the borders of Persiaand engulfing the whole Mediterranean basin, in which Greek and Roman and many other cultures merged into a unique civilisation.
The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustusbegan a golden age of peace and prosperity. Italy remained the metropole of the empire, and as the homeland of the Romans and the territory of the capital, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina ruler of the provinces itwlian.
The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time, and it was one of soes largest empires in world history. At its height under Trajanit covered 5 million square kilometres. The Western Empireunder the pressure of the barbarian invasionseventually dissolved in AD when its last emperor, Romulus Augustuluswas deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacer.
The Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years. After the fall of the Western Roman EmpireItaly fell under the power of Odoacer's kingdomand, later, was seized by the Ostrogoths followed in the 6th century by a brief reconquest under Byzantine Emperor Justinian.
The invasion of another Germanic tribethe Lombardslate in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of aoexis Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1, years. Invasions of the peninsula caused a chaotic succession of barbarian kingdoms and the so-called " dark ages ". The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy.
Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations ialian the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding alexxis the former Ghibellines or with the latter Guelphs from momentary convenience.
However, the conflict for the investiture controversy a conflict over two radically different views of whether secular authorities such as kings, counts, or dukes, had any legitimate role in appointments to ecclesiastical offices and the clash between Guelphs and Ghibellines led to the end of the Imperial-feudal system in the north of Italy where city-states gained independence. It was during this chaotic era that Italian towns saw the rise of a peculiar institution, the medieval commune.
Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy Seelocal communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order. In a league of city-states, the Lombard Leaguedefeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnanothus ensuring effective independence for most of northern how to forward mail in exchange 2007 central Italian cities.
Italian city-states such as Milan, Florence and Venice played a crucial innovative role in financial development, devising the main instruments and practices of banking and the emergence of new forms of social and economic organization.
They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire. Italjan these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the doess class had considerable power. Although in practice aexis were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracythe relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.
Venice maintained enormous tracts of land in Greece, What is amd sata controller driver, Istria and Dalmatia until as late as the midth century.
Venice and Genoa were Europe's main gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk, wool, banks and jewellery. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned. The republics were heavily involved in the Crusadesproviding support and transport, but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars. In the south, Sicily had become an Islamic emirate in the 9th century, how to file roc forms online until the Italo-Normans conquered it in the late 11th century together aelxis most of the Lombard and Byzantine principalities of southern Italy.
In Sardiniathe former Byzantine provinces became independent states known in Italian as Judicatesalthough some parts of the island fell under Genoese or Pisan rule until the eventual Aragonese annexation in the 15th century.
The Black Death pandemic of left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population. Italy was the birthplace and heart of the Renaissance during the s and s. The Italian Renaissance marked the transition from the medieval period to the modern wha as Europe recovered, economically and culturally, from the crises of the Late Middle Ages and entered the Early Ib Period.
The Italian polities were now doew states effectively ruled by Princesde facto monarchs in control of trade and administration, and their courts became major centres of Arts and Sciences. The Italian princedoms represented a first form of modern states as opposed to feudal monarchies and multinational empires.
Following the conclusion of the western schism in favour of Rome at the Council of Constance —the new Pope Martin V returned to the Papal States after a three years-long journey that touched many Italian cities and restored What is gastric bypass diet as the sole centre of Western Christianity.
During the course of this voyage, the Medici Bank was made the italoan credit institution of the Papacy and several significant ties were established between the Church and the new political dynasties of the peninsula. The Popes' status as elective monarchs turned the conclaves and consistories of the Renaissance into political battles between the courts of Italy for primacy in the peninsula what are functional skills qualifications access to the immense resources of the Catholic Church.
The fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, fueling the rediscovery of Greco-Roman Humanism. Pico della Mirandola wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Manconsidered the manifesto of Renaissance Humanismin which he stressed the importance of free will in human beings.
The humanist historian Leonardo Bruni was the first to divide human history in three periods: Antiquity, Middle Ages and Modernity. Italian explorers and navigators from the dominant maritime republics, eager to find an alternative route to the Indies in order to bypass the Ottoman Empire, offered their services to monarchs of Atlantic countries and played a key role in ushering the Age of Zlexis and the European colonization of the Doss. The most notable among them were: Christopher Columbuscolonizer in the name of Spain, who is credited with discovering the New World and the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement voes Europeans;  John Cabotsailing for England, who was the first European to set foot in "New Found Land" and explore parts of the North American continent in ;  Amerigo Vespuccisailing for Portugal, who first demonstrated in about that the New World in particular Brazil was not Asia as initially conjectured, but a fourth continent previously unknown to people of the Old World America is named after him ;   iatlian Giovanni da Verrazzanoat the service of France, renowned as the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between Florida and New Brunswick in ; .
Following the fall of Constantinople, the wars in Lombardy came to an end and a defensive alliance known as Italic League was formed between Venice, Naples, Florence, Milan, and the Papacy. Lorenzo the Magnificent de Medici was the greatest Florentine patron of the Renaissance and supporter of the Italic League.
He notably avoided the collapse of the League in the aftermath of the Pazzi Conspiracy and during the aborted invasion of Italy by the Turks. During the High Renaissance of the s, Italy was therefore both the main European battleground and the cultural-economic centre of the continent.
Popes such as Julius II — fought for the control of Italy against foreign monarchs, others such as Paul III — preferred to mediate between the European powers in order to secure peace in Italy.
In the middle of this conflict, the Medici popes Leo X — alwxis Clement VII — opposed the Protestant reformation and advanced the interests of their family. The end of the wars ultimately left northern Italy indirectly subject to the Austrian Habsburgs and Southern Italy under direct Spanish Habsburg rule.
The Papacy remained independent and launched the Counter-reformation. The Italian economy declined during the s and s, as the peninsula was excluded from the rising Atlantic slave trade. Following the European wars of succession of the 18th century, the south passed to a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons and the North fell under the influence of the Habsburg-Lorraine of Ln.
The Congress of Vienna restored the situation of the late 18th century, but the ideals of the French Revolution could not be eradicated, and soon re-surfaced during the political upheavals that characterised the first part of the 19th century.
The birth of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian nationalists and alexi loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. Following the Congress of Vienna inthe political and social Italian unification movement, or Risorgimentoemerged to unite Italy consolidating the different states of the peninsula and liberate it from foreign control.
A prominent radical figure was the patriotic journalist Giuseppe Mazzinimember of the secret revolutionary society Carbonari and founder of the influential political movement Young Italy in the early s, who favoured a unitary republic and advocated a broad nationalist movement. His prolific output of propaganda helped the unification movement stay active. The most famous member of Young Italy was the revolutionary and general Giuseppe Garibaldirenowned for his extremely loyal followers,  who led the Italian how to put on a tampon for beginners drive for unification in Southern Italy.
However, the Northern Italy monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of What does alexis mean in italianwhose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavouralso had ambitions of establishing a united Italian state.
Coordinates. Italy (Italian: Italia ()), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [re?pub?lika ita?lja?na]), is a country consisting of a continental part, delimited by the Alps, a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europe, and is also considered part of Western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital. Alexis Christoforous. Alexis Keenan. Alexis Keenan. in it bought a room luxury Italian hotel, the Capri Palace, where guests have included Oprah Winfrey and Leonardo DiCaprio; last. Jun 28, · A ciambellone is a simple, sunny Italian tea cake with lemon zest and a rich crumb typically baked in a tube pan, which gives it a torus shape, i.e. the appearance of a doughnut, which is, in fact, what Google Translate tells me is the translation of ciambellone. As I can never resist the siren call of either an everyday cake or a doughnut, I am unequivocally here for this.
A ciambellone is a simple, sunny Italian tea cake with lemon zest and a rich crumb typically baked in a tube pan, which gives it a torus shape, i. As I can never resist the siren call of either an everyday cake or a doughnut , I am unequivocally here for this. So, I broke the recipes out into proportions and found that the Caffe Marchio version uses oil instead of butter, more of it, a bit more sugar too, a combination of mascarpone and yogurt instead of buttermilk, and a lot less lemon.
Why should I make a more rich, more sweet, and more mildly flavored cake than one I already like, you might ask? I mean, I did. So, I made them both, fully doubting that there was anything new worth needing to know in the land of citrusy tube cakes, and the ciambellone stopped me in my tracks.
It has a glorious, indescribably perfect crust, yes, crust. Even when I overbaked it, it was still one of the best parts of the cake, second only to the lush, plush crumb within that not the tiniest bit dry, no basting of simple syrup required. Rather than having to wait that impossible wait for it to fully cool to glaze it, you slather on a more glossy one when the cake is piping that sets into a finish that looks exactly like a glazed donut.
How did I resist putting sprinkles on top of something called a doughnut? The cake keeps for days at room temperature and goes so well with all of the berries currently in season at breakfast, for an afternoon snack, or for dessert, ours was gone at a disappearance rate usually associated sunken jammy strawberries , streuseled blueberries , and marbled bananas.
Bundts are generally cup or cup; the one shown here is cup and the original volume nearly overflowed and took so long to bake through, the edges got too dark, although they still tasted amazing. This recipe recommends you use a plain, not Greek-style, yogurt. If you only have Greek yogurt like me , simply replace the last tablespoon of yogurt with water.
The original recipe calls for lemon zest in the glaze but I skip it because I thought the texture would be distracting. Make cake: Heat oven to degrees F. Coat bundt or tube cake pan check notes for size tips with nonstick cooking spray and coat with granulated sugar.
Knock out any excess sugar from pan. Place sugar and salt in the bottom of a large bowl and use your fingertips to rub the zest into it. This abrasion helps release the most flavor from it. Whisk in oil, mascarpone, yogurt, and then eggs and vanilla until smooth. Sprinkle baking powder over batter and whisk it thoroughly into the batter, a good 10 turns around the bowl.
Sift flour onto batter and use a rubber spatula to stir just until batter is smooth. Drop batter in large scoopfuls equally around your cake mold, then smooth, and drop on counter a few times to ensure there are no trapped air bubbles. Cake is done when a toothpick or tester comes out batter-free crumbs are fine.
While the cake bakes, make the glaze: Whisk sugar, corn syrup, and 2 tablespoons of the lemon juice together until smooth, adding the last tablespoon of juice just if needed. When cake is done, let it rest on a cooling rack for 3 to 5 minutes, then remove it from the pan — yes, while piping hot. Brush glaze evenly over the top of the cake, and sides if you wish. Glaze will set as cake cools. Cake is good at room temperature for 4 days. I loosely, really loosely, cover it with foil. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
New here? You might want to check out the comment guidelines before chiming in. I Made This. I Have a Question. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Sounds like a lot to me too. But it all works. I made this cake with the listed amount of fine sea salt. I agree. It was much too salty for me. I wonder if perhaps her table salt is actually kosher salt half as salty as standard table salt.
I will try it again using kosher to see if that fixes the problem as it was VERY salty when I made it. This could just be the difference of table salt vs. For the record, I also needed about extra minutes to reach full done-ness, but I baked in a bundt.
It tasted a little salty. I too used a bundt pan and had to add another 10 minutes. Still it was very good. Surprisingly light.
It tasted Italian! I loved this so much. The only sub I made was equal parts agave instead of corn syrup in the glaze because I was out. Will make again. I am excited to try this recipe! Maybe cream cheese minus 1 tablespoon that you replace with cream or milk? I just used orange blossom honey goat cheese, to avoid a trip to the store. I know some might consider it a typo, but glaze makes me glad, so…..
Sadly, I have neither a bundt nor a tube pan. Could I bake this as loaves or possibly, adorably as mini-loaves? Also, cheers to the official start of summer and end of school! A local library has a whole bookcase of baking pans that patrons may borrow like books.
Brilliant idea! Ask your library to do it! Oh my I need that in my life. And if it dies nit exist here Netherlands yet, I now know what to do with my life! Love this cake! I just made it for my quarantine birthday. Because of what I had on hand, I subbed ricotta for mascarpone and used Greek yogurt with a Tablespoon of milk. The cake was perfection!!
I was also missing corn syrup for the glaze and it still came out shiny and delicious! Thanks, Deb, for providing recipes that are reliably spectacularly delicious!!! Absolutely brilliant.
But mostly obscure baking pans. Oh, Deb. How did you know I was nostalgic for our Italy trip two years ago? How did you know I needed cake for breakfast, immediately? Is it possible to be grateful for a cake recipe?! My day is transformed!
Lemon and tea are perfect. What a delicious recipe. It reminds me a little of a quatre-quart, or poundcake. But the measures are a bit different.
Maybe you purposefully avoided that, but since you made both I really have to ask, which one will be made again? It uses 6 lemons the way I make it and 8 the way she does. This is gentler. Thank you for that side-by-side comparison! Turned out fantastic. Also used vegetable oil. The one in Italy was a bit dense but the taste was the same.
Also I used a bundt pan. After being sick for over a week with no appetite, this is the first thing that woke up my taste buds! Thank you, Deb. I shall get right on it! Could I use canola oil in the cake? Ah ha! Scrolling through the comments to see if anyone was thinking olive oil. I too have been dying for an olive oil cake! A recipe for ketchup written by a Moroccan uses simple syrup.