Mount Everest - Mount Everest - The height of Everest: Controversy over the exact elevation of the summit developed because of variations in snow level, gravity deviation, and light refraction. The figure 29, feet (8, metres), plus or minus a fraction, was established by the Survey of India between 19and became widely accepted. Tenzing Norgay GM OSN / ? t ? n z ? ? ? n ??r ? e? / (Sherpa: ?????????????????? tendzin norgye; perhaps – 9 May ), born Namgyal Wangdi, and also referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepali-Indian Sherpa mountaineer. He was one of the first two individuals known to reach the summit of Mount Everest, which he accomplished with.
Controversy over the exact elevation of the summit developed because of variations in snow level, gravity deviation, and light refraction. The figure 29, feet 8, metresplus or minus a fraction, was established by the Survey how to steam my face India between and and became widely accepted. This value was used by most researchers, mapping agencies, and publishers until A Chinese survey in obtained the figure of 29, In another Italian survey, using the Global Doula what do they do System GPS and laser measurement technology, yielded the figure 29, feet 8, metres by subtracting from the measured height 6.
In an American survey, sponsored by the What is a sherpas on everest. Their finding of 29, feet 8, metresplus or minus 6. The Chinese mounted another expedition in that utilized ice-penetrating radar in conjunction with GPS equipment.
In April China and Nepal agreed to recognize the validity of both figures. In December China and Nepal jointly declared that the height of Everest was 29, This new measurement, derived from data from surveys performed by Nepal in and China in that utilized GPS and BeiDou navigation technology and laser theodoliteswas accepted by various specialists in the fields of geodesy and cartography, including the National Geographic Society.
Everest is so tall and its climate so severe that it is incapable of supporting sustained human occupation, but the valleys below the mountain are inhabited by Tibetan-speaking peoples. Notable among these are the Sherpa s, who live in villages at elevations up to about 14, feet 4, metres in the Khumbu valley of Nepal and other locations. Traditionally an agricultural people with little cultivable land at their disposal, the Sherpas for years were traders and led a seminomadic lifestyle in their search for pastureland.
In summerlivestock was grazed as high as 16, feet 4, metreswhile winter refuge was taken at lower elevations on sheltered ledges and along riverbanks. Gods and demons were believed to live how to become a housesitter the high peaks, and the Yeti the so-called Abominable Snowman was said to roam the lower slopes.
For these reasons, the Sherpas traditionally did not climb the mountains. However, beginning with the British expeditions of the early 20th century, surveying and portering work became available. Eventually, the respect and pay earned in mountaineering made it attractive to the Sherpas, who, being so well adapted to the high altitudes, were capable of carrying how to convert png image to jpg loads of cargo over long distances.
Though Sherpas and other hill people the name Sherpa came to be applied—erroneously—to all what is the definition of boo tend to outperform their foreign clients, they typically have played a subordinate role in expeditions; rarely, for example, has one of their names been associated with a pioneering route on Everest.
The influx of foreign climbers—and, in far greater numbers, trekkers—has dramatically changed Sherpa life, as their livelihood increasingly has come to depend on these climbing expeditions.
On the Nepalese side of the international boundary, the mountain and its surrounding valleys lie within Sagarmatha National Park, a square-mile 1,square-km zone established in The valleys contain stands of rhododendron and forests of birch and pine, while above the tree line alpine vegetation extends to the feet of the glaciers.
Over the years, carelessness and excessive consumption of resources by mountaineers, as well as overgrazing by livestock, have damaged the habitats of snow leopardslesser pandasTibetan bearsand scores of bird species.
To counteract past abuses, various reforestation programs have been carried out by local communities and the Nepalese government. A large quantity of the litter of past climbers—tons of items such as tentscans, crampons, and human waste—has been hauled down from the mountain and recycled or discarded.
However, the bodies of most of the more than climbers who have died on Everest notably on its upper slopes have not been removed, as they are unreachable or—for those that are accessible—their weight makes carrying them down extremely difficult.
Notable in the cleanup endeavour have been the efforts of the Eco Everest Expeditions, the first of which was organized in to commemorate the death that January of Everest-climbing pioneer Sir Edmund Hillary.
Those expeditions also have publicized ecological issues in particular, concerns about the effects of climate change in the region through observations that the Khumbu Icefall has been melting. Mount Everest. Additional Info. Load Previous Page.
The height of Everest Controversy over the exact elevation of the summit developed because of variations in snow level, gravity deviation, and light refraction. Human factors Habitation Everest is so tall and its climate so severe that it is incapable of supporting sustained human occupation, but the valleys below the mountain are inhabited by Tibetan-speaking peoples.
A herders' shelter in the Mount Everest region of the Himalayas; Lhotse I, just southeast of Everest, is in the centre background. Load Next Page.
There are conflicting accounts of Norgay's early life. The account given in his autobiography is that he was a Sherpa born and raised in Tengboche , Khumbu , in northeastern Nepal. Norgay went to Nepal as a child to work for a Sherpa family in Khumbu.
Although his exact date of birth is unknown, he knew it was in late May by the weather and the crops. After his ascent of Everest on 29 May , he decided to celebrate his birthday on that day thereafter. His year of birth, according to the Tibetan calendar , was the Year of the Rabbit , making it likely that he was born in Norgay was originally called "Namgyal Wangdi," but as a child his name was changed on the advice of the head lama and founder of Rongbuk Monastery , Ngawang Tenzin Norbu.
She lived to see him climb Everest. Norgay was the 11th of 13 children, most of the rest of whom died young. Tenzing ran away from home twice in his teens, first to Kathmandu , and later to Darjeeling , India, at that time the starting point for most expeditions in the eastern Himalaya. He was once sent to Tengboche Monastery to become a monk, but he decided that was not for him and departed. Norgay received his first opportunity to join an Everest expedition when he was employed by Eric Shipton , leader of the British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition.
As a year-old, Norgay's chance came when two of the others failed their medical tests. As a friend of Ang Tharkay a Sherpa sirdar who had been on the British Mount Everest expedition , Norgay was quickly pushed forward, and his attractive smile caught the eye of Shipton, who decided to take him on.
Norgay participated as a high-altitude porter in three official British attempts to climb Everest from the northern Tibetan side in the s. He also took part in other climbs in various parts of the Indian subcontinent. For a time in the early s, Norgay lived in the princely state of Chitral that later became a part of Pakistan on partition of India as batman to a Major Chapman. Norgay's first wife died and was buried there during his tenure in the state.
He returned to Darjeeling with his two daughters during the Indian partition of , and managed to cross India by train without a ticket and without being challenged, by wearing one of Major Chapman's old uniforms. In , Norgay participated in an unsuccessful summit attempt of Everest. The Canadian-born mountaineer Earl Denman , Ange Dawa Sherpa, and Norgay entered Tibet illegally to attempt the climb, an attempt which ended when a strong storm hit at 22, feet 6, m.
Denman admitted defeat, and all three turned around, returning safely. The expedition reached the main summit of Kedarnath at 22, feet 6, m in the western Garhwal Himalaya with Norgay being one of the summit party. In , he took part in the two Swiss expeditions led by Edouard Wyss-Dunant spring and Gabriel Chevalley autumn , the first serious attempts to climb Everest from the southern Nepalese side, after two previous US and British reconnaissance expeditions in and Raymond Lambert and Tenzing Norgay were able to reach a height of about 8, metres 28, ft on the southeast ridge, setting a new climbing altitude record.
Norgay and Raymond Lambert reached on 28 May the then-record height of 8, metres 28, ft ,  and this expedition, during which Norgay was for the first time considered a full expedition member "the greatest honour that had ever been paid me"  forged a lasting friendship between Norgay and his Swiss friends, in particular Raymond Lambert. During the autumn expedition, the team was stopped by bad weather after reaching an altitude of 8, metres 26, ft. The Hunt expedition totalled over people, including porters , 20 Sherpa guides and 10, pounds 4, kg of baggage,  and like many such expeditions, was a team effort.
The expedition set up base camp in March Hillary wrote in about first meeting Norgay in Kathmandu on 5 March .
I was eager to meet Tenzing Norgay. His reputation had been most impressive even before his two great efforts with the Swiss expedition … Tenzing really looked the part — larger than most Sherpas he was very strong and active; his flashing smile was irresistible; and he was incredibly patient with all our questions and requests.
His success in the past had given him great physical confidence — I think that even then he expected to be a member of the final assault party … One message came through however in very positive fashion — Tenzing had substantially greater personal ambition than any Sherpa I had met.
Working slowly, the expedition set up their penultimate camp at the South Col , at 25, feet 7, m. The pair had reached the South Summit , coming within vertical feet 91 m of the summit. Snow and wind held the pair up at the South Col for two days. Norgay and Hillary pitched a tent at 27, feet 8, m on 28 May while their support group returned down the mountain. On the following morning Hillary discovered that his boots had frozen solid outside the tent.
He spent two hours warming them before he and Tenzing attempted the final ascent, wearing pound 14 kg packs. From there, the following effort was relatively simple. They reached Everest's 29,foot 8, m summit, the highest point on Earth, at a. They spent only about 15 minutes at the summit. Hillary took the famous photo of Norgay posing with his ice-axe, but since Norgay had never used a camera, Hillary's ascent went unrecorded. However, according to Norgay's autobiography Man of Everest ,  when Norgay offered to take Hillary's photograph Hillary declined—"I motioned to Hillary that I would now take his picture.
But for some reason he shook his head; he did not want it. The first person they met was Lowe, who had climbed up to meet them with hot soup.
Afterwards, Norgay was met with great adulation in Nepal and India. It has been a long road From a mountain coolie , a bearer of loads, to a wearer of a coat with rows of medals who is carried about in planes and worries about income tax. Nonetheless, there was some inequity, according to National Geographic , .
But Tenzing, who simultaneously reached its summit, only received an honorary medal. In the years since, there's been growing disquiet at the lack of official recognition. Norgay and Hillary were the first people to conclusively set foot on the summit of Mount Everest, but journalists were persistently repeating the question: "Which of the two men had the right to the glory of being the first one, and who was merely the second, the follower?
Norgay eventually ended the speculation by revealing that Hillary was first in his autobiography Man of Everest page ; originally titled Tiger of the Snows. It was ghost-written by American writer James Ramsay Ullman as Tenzing could not read English; he could speak four languages but his English was minimal.
They were roped six feet apart, with most of the 30 foot rope in loops in his hand: . A little below the summit Hillary and I stopped. I was not thinking of 'first' and 'second'. I did not say to myself, there is a golden apple up there. I will push Hillary aside and run for it.
We went on slowly, steadily. And then we were there. Hillary stepped on top first. And I stepped up after him Now the truth is told. And I am ready to be judged by it. In January , with permission of the King of Bhutan , Jigme Singye Wangchuck , Norgay served as sirdar guide for the first American tourist party allowed into the country.
Norgay even introduced his group to the King of Sikkim the last king of Sikkim, as Sikkim is now a part of India and also brought them to his home in India for a farewell celebration. In Norgay founded Tenzing Norgay Adventures,  a company providing trekking adventures in the Himalayas.
As of , the company was run by his son Jamling Tenzing Norgay , who himself reached the summit of Everest in In , after Norgay's third Everest expedition as a porter, the Himalayan Club awarded him its Tiger Medal for high-altitude work.
In , the Government of India awarded him the Padma Bhushan , the third-highest civilian award of India. In July , the highest-known, 3. Norgay was married three times. His first wife, Dawa Phuti, died young in Norgay's second wife was Ang Lahmu, a cousin of his first wife. They had no additional biological children, but she was adoptive mother to their daughters from his earlier marriage with her cousin.
His third wife was Dakku, whom he married while his second wife was still alive, as allowed by Sherpa custom see polygyny. Jamling would join Peter Hillary , Edmund Hillary's son, in climbing Everest in on the 50th anniversary of their fathers' climb. Other relatives include Norgay's nephews, Nawang Gombu and Topgay, who took part in the Everest expedition; and his grandsons, Tashi Tenzing, who lives in Sydney , Australia , and the Trainor grandsons: Tenzing, Kalden, and Yonden.
Tenzing Trainor rose to fame as an actor on Liv and Maddie. Norgay died of a cerebral hemorrhage in Darjeeling , West Bengal , India, on May 9,  at the age of His widow Dakku died in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For people with the name, see Tenzing name. Nepali-Indian Sherpa mountaineer. Dawa Phuti.
Ang Lahmu. Main article: Swiss Mount Everest expedition. Main article: British Mount Everest expedition. Ebury Press.
ISBN Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 2 March The Observer. Retrieved 22 August Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 31 May Man of Everest.