Positive and Negative Effects of Social Media on Society
Sep 08, · The Internet is the decisive technology of the Information Age, and with the explosion of wireless communication in the early twenty-first century, we . Feb 20, · What effect has the internet had on journalism? The web is a valuable tool, but old-fashioned press practices can still be best News reporting has come a long way since this photograph of the.
Metrics details. Protein timing is a popular dietary strategy designed to optimize the adaptive response to exercise. The strategy involves how to stop a tantrum 2 year old protein in and around a training session in an effort to facilitate muscular repair and remodeling, and thereby enhance post-exercise strength- and hypertrophy-related adaptations.
Despite the apparent biological plausibility of the strategy, however, the effectiveness of protein timing in chronic training studies has been decidedly mixed. The purpose of this paper therefore was to conduct a multi-level meta-regression of randomized controlled trials to determine whether protein timing is a viable strategy for enhancing post-exercise muscular adaptations.
The strength analysis comprised subjects and 96 ESs, nested within what is the effect of internet in the society treatment or control groups and 20 studies. The hypertrophy analysis comprised subjects and ESs, nested with 47 treatment or control groups and 23 studies. A simple pooled analysis of protein timing without controlling for covariates showed a small to moderate effect on muscle hypertrophy with no significant effect found on muscle strength.
In the full meta-regression model controlling for all covariates, however, no significant differences were found between treatment and control for strength or hypertrophy. The reduced model was what was the longest inning in baseball significantly different from the full model for either strength or hypertrophy. With respect to hypertrophy, total protein intake was the strongest predictor of ES magnitude.
These results refute the commonly held belief that the timing of protein intake in and around a training session is critical to muscular adaptations and indicate that consuming adequate protein in combination with resistance exercise is the key factor for maximizing muscle protein accretion. Protein timing is a popular dietary strategy designed to optimize the adaptive response to exercise [ 1 ].
The effecf involves consuming protein in and around a training session in an effort to facilitate muscular repair and remodeling, and thereby enhance post-exercise strength- and hypertrophy-related adaptations [ 2 ]. Proponents of the strategy claim that, when properly executed, precise intake of protein in the peri-workout period can augment increases in fat-free mass [ 4 ].
Some researchers have even put forth the notion that the timing of food intake may have a greater positive effect on body composition than absolute daily nutrient consumption [ 5 ]. A number of studies support the superiority of protein timing for stimulating increases in acute protein synthesis pursuant to resistance training when compared to placebo [ 6 — 9 ]. Protein is deemed to be the critical nutrient required for optimizing post-exercise protein synthesis.
The essential amino acids, intdrnet particular, are believed primarily responsible for enhancing this response, with little to no contribution seen from provision of non-essential amino acids [ 1011 ]. Borsheim et al. However, increasing EAA intake beyond this amount has not been shown to significantly heighten post-exercise protein synthesis [ 2 ]. There is limited evidence that carbohydrate has an additive effect on enhancing post-exercise muscle protein synthesis when combined with amino acid ingestion [ 12 ], with a majority of studies failing to demonstrate any sociwty benefit [ 13 — 15 ].
Despite the apparent biological plausibility of the strategy, the effectiveness of protein timing in chronic training studies has been decidedly mixed. However, these conclusions were at least in part a reflection of methodological issues in the current research. One iss in particular is that studies to date have employed small sample sizes. Thus, it is possible that null findings may be attributable to these studies being underpowered, resulting in a type II error.
In addition, various confounders including the amount of EAA supplementation, matching of protein intake, training status, and variations in age and gender between studies make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions on the topic.
Thus, by increasing statistical power and controlling for confounding variables, what happened to paige davis from trading spaces meta-analysis may help to provide clarity as to whether protein timing confers potential benefits in post-exercise skeletal muscle adaptations. A recent meta-analysis by Cermak et al.
However, this analysis did not specifically investigate protein timing per se. Rather, inclusion criteria encompassed all resistance training studies in which at least one group consumed a protein supplement or modified higher protein diet. The purpose of this paper therefore is to conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether timing protein near the resistance training bout is a viable strategy for enhancing muscular adaptations.
Only randomized controlled trials or randomized crossover trials involving protein timing were considered for inclusion. There were no restrictions for age, gender, training status, or matching of protein intake, but these variables were controlled via subgroup analysis using meta-regression.
To wha out this review, English-language literature searches of the PubMed and Google Scholar databases were conducted for all time periods up to March Consistent with methods outlined by Greenhalgh and Peacock [ 25 ], the reference lists of articles retrieved in the search were then screened for any additional articles that had relevance to the topic.
A total of 34 studies were identified as potentially relevant to this review. To reduce the potential for selection bias, each of these studies were independently perused by two of the investigators BJS and AAAand a mutual decision was made as to whether or not they met basic inclusion criteria.
Ths quality was then assessed with the PEDro scale, which has been shown to be a valid measure of the methodologic quality of RCTs [ 26 ] and possesses acceptable inter-rater reliability [ 27 ].
Initial pre-screening revealed 29 potential studies that investigated nutrient timing with respect to muscular adaptations. Of these studies, 3 did not meet criteria for sufficient supplemental protein intake [ 28 — 30 ] and in another the timing of consumption was outside the defined post-workout range [ 31 effecr. Thus, a total of 25 studies ultimately were deemed suitable for inclusion. Two of the studies were subsequently excluded because they did not contain sufficient data for calculating an effect size and attempts to obtain this information from the authors were unsuccessful [ 1932 ], leaving a total sffect studies suitable for analysis.
The average PEDro score of these studies was 8. Table 1 summarizes the studies meeting inclusion criteria. DXA, hydrostatic weighing, etc.
Coding was cross-checked between coders, and any discrepancies were resolved by mutual consensus. To assess potential coder drift, 5 studies were randomly selected for recoding as described by Cooper et al. Per case agreement was determined by dividing the number of variables coded the same by the total number rhe variables. Acceptance required a mean agreement how to clean a dell computer hard drive 0.
For each 1-RM strength or hypertrophy outcome, an effect size ES was calculated as the pretest-posttest change, divided by the pretest standard deviation SD [ 51 ]. Calculation of the sampling variance required an estimate of the population ES, and the pretest-posttest correlation for each individual ES.
The population ES was estimated by calculating the mean ES across all studies and treatment how to draft a warning letter to an employee [ 51 ]. The pretest-posttest correlation was calculated using the following formula [ 51 ]:. Where s 2 was not reported, s 1 was used in its iin. Where s D was not reported, it was estimated using the following formula [ 52 ]:.
Meta-analyses were performed using hierarchical linear mixed models, modeling the variation between studies as a random effect, the variation between treatment and control groups as a random effect nested within studies, and group-level predictors as fixed effects [ 53 ]. The within-group variances were assumed known. Observations were weighted by the inverse of the sampling variance [ 51 ]. An intercept-only model was created, estimating the weighted mean ES across all studies and treatment groups.
Second, a basic model was created which only included the class of the group treatment or control as a predictor. A full model was then created with the following predictors: the class of the group treatment or controlwhether or not the groups were protein matched, training status experienced or noviceblinding double, single, or nonegender male, female, or mixedage young or oldbody mass in kg, and the duration of the study internnet weeks.
The full model was then reduced by removing one predictor at a time, starting with the most insignificant predictor [ 54 ]. Model parameters were estimated by the method of restricted maximum likelihood REML [ 56 ]; an exception was during the model reduction process, in which parameters were estimated by the method of maximum likelihood MLas LRTs cannot be used to compare nested models with REML estimates.
Denominator df socoety statistical tests and CIs were calculated according to Berkey et al. Separate analyses whhat performed for strength and hypertrophy. However, because resistance exercise is associated with the accretion of non-muscle tissue, separate sub-analyses on CSA and FFM were performed. Adjustment for post hoc multiple comparisons was performed using a simulation-based procedure [ 58 ].
The weighted mean strength ES across all studies and groups was 1. The weighted mean hypertrophy ES across all studies and groups was 0. The mean strength ES difference between treatment and control for each individual study, along with the overall weighted mean difference across all studies, is shown in Figure 1. The mean hypertrophy ES difference between treatment and control for each individual study, along with the overall weighted mean difference across all studies, is shown in Figure 2.
After the model reduction procedure, only training status and blinding remained as significant covariates. The mean ES for control was 0. The mean ES for treatment was 1. After the model reduction procedure, total protein intake, study duration, and blinding remained as significant covariates. The mean ES for treatment whaat 0.
To confirm that total protein intake was mediator variable in the relationship between protein timing and hypertrophy, a model with only total protein intake as a covariate was created. Impact of how to determine serving sizes timing on hypertrophy by study, adjusted for total protein intake.
This is the first meta-analysis to directly investigate the effects of protein timing on strength and hypertrophic adaptations following long-term resistance training protocols. The study produced several novel findings. It is what is the effect of internet in the society accepted that an effect size of 0.
However, an expanded regression analysis found that any positive effects associated with protein timing on muscle protein accretion disappeared after controlling for covariates.
Moreover, sub-analysis showed that discrepancies ix total protein intake explained the majority of hypertrophic differences noted in timing studies. When taken together, these results would seem to refute the commonly held belief that the timing of protein intake in the immediate pre- and post-workout period is critical to muscular adaptations [ 3 — 5 ].
Perceived hypertrophic benefits seen in timing studies appear to be the result of an increased consumption of protein as opposed to temporal factors. In our reduced model, the amount of protein consumed was highly and significantly associated with hypertrophic gains. While there is undoubtedly an upper threshold to this correlation, these findings underscore the importance of consuming higher amounts of protein when the goal is to maximize exercise-induced increases in muscle mass.
Conversely, total i intake did not have an impact on strength outcomes and ultimately ehat factored out during the model reduction process. However, these values are based on the needs of sedentary individuals and are i to represent a level of intake necessary to replace effecf and hence avert deficiency; they do not reflect the requirements of hard training individuals seeking to increase lean mass. Studies do in fact show that those participating in intensive resistance training programs need significantly more protein to remain in a non-negative nitrogen balance.
Position stands from multiple scientific bodies estimate these requirements to be approximately double that of the RDA [ 5960 ]. Higher levels of protein consumption appear to be particularly important during the early stages of intense resistance training.
Lemon et al. The increased protein knternet in novice subjects have been attributed to changes in muscle protein synthetic rate and the need to sustain greater lean mass thhe than increased fuel utilization [ 62 ]. There is some evidence that protein requirements actually decrease slightly to approximately 1. The average protein intake for controls in the unmatched studies was 1. Since a preponderance of these studies involved untrained subjects, it seems probable that a majority of any gains in muscle mass would have been due to higher protein consumption by the treatment group.
These findings are consistent with those of Cermak et al.
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The Raman Effect is a very weak effect; only one in a million of the scattered light particles, or photons, actually exhibits the change in wavelength. This explains, in part, why the effect . Dec 03, · Protein timing is a popular dietary strategy designed to optimize the adaptive response to exercise. The strategy involves consuming protein in and around a training session in an effort to facilitate muscular repair and remodeling, and thereby enhance post-exercise strength- and hypertrophy-related adaptations. Despite the apparent biological plausibility of the strategy, however, the. Because, in fact, academic research knows a great deal on the interaction between Internet and society, on the basis of methodologically rigorous empirical research conducted in a plurality of cultural and institutional contexts. Any process of major technological change generates its own mythology.
F or Peter Beaumont , this newspaper's foreign affairs editor, the revolution in Egypt revealed more than the power of the people in triumphing over repressive regimes; on a personal level, he discovered something new about his working practices. Beaumont trained as a journalist in the days before the world wide web, but, like most of his profession, he has integrated new technologies into his news-gathering techniques as they've emerged. Covering the events in Cairo during the internet blackout in Egypt was like taking a step back in time.
It was absolutely liberating. The web's effect on news reporting is considered the most clear evidence that this is a revolutionary technology: news editors — and in some cases, the governments that they observe — are no longer the gatekeepers to information because costs of distribution have almost completely disappeared. If knowledge is power, the web is the greatest tool in the history of the world.
The process that happens before a story is published has also been transformed. The web has become the go-to point for the globe when it comes to getting information; it's the same for reporters. Online, they find a multiplicity of perspectives and a library of available knowledge that provides the context for stories. Increasingly, the stories are coming from the web.
They posted bits of information they knew themselves and aggregated it with links from elsewhere. For most, the delivery was crude, but the reporting, linking and sharing nature of news coverage emerged at that moment. For reporters in Egypt, however, their greatest frustration was not that they were disconnected from the context provided by the network, but that they struggled to get their stories out.
In fact, Beaumont found the silence a relief. You just had the news and the news was happening right in front of you. More generally, technology has improved the processes of identifying stories that are newsworthy. Feeds from social networking services such as Facebook and Twitter provide a snapshot of events happening around the world from the viewpoint of first-hand witnesses, and blogs and citizen news sources offer analytical perspectives from the ground faster than print or television can provide.
Paul Mason, economics editor on BBC2's Newsnight , uses these tools to get an angle on what's happening and what's important. None the less, such tools are still only one element of the news-gathering process. This may mean that large organisations appear to break stories days after they've appeared on Twitter. They're trained to see what they want to see. If you only rely on Twitter or Facebook, you might end up howling with the wolves.
Indeed, in , American TV networks found themselves in a very public mess when they reported the "Twitter line" on the story of a killing spree by Major Nidal Malik Hasan at Fort Hood US army base — that the killer had terrorist links. The details turned out to be false. Eudes's caution does not mean he discounts the value of the tools the web offers its army of citizen journalists; Le Monde was one of the organisations, along with the Guardian , that worked with Julian Assange to publish the WikiLeaks cables last year.
And loose organisations such as Global Voices, a network of international citizen journalists reporting on a global platform about local stories, offer windows on events around the world that are increasingly ignored by local papers. Ultimately, however, Eudes believes the fundamentals of news-gathering have not been transformed by the web.
Anyone can make bread, but it's lousy bread. You need to spend time like a true, professional baker to learn to make good bread.
Part of that learning process for newshounds, it seems, involves leaving the web and pounding the pavement for stories. For Beaumont, working from Tahrir Square without web access was a reminder of a purer form of journalism. If you don't have to worry about that, you can concentrate on pure observational reporting.
Which," he says, "is a pleasure. Untangling the web with Aleks Krotoski Internet. What effect has the internet had on journalism? The web is a valuable tool, but old-fashioned press practices can still be best. News reporting has come a long way since this photograph of the offices of the Louisville Courier Journal. Aleks Krotoski. Reuse this content.