The purpose of the OculusЧa five-foot-thick ring of brick in the roof of the PantheonЧis four-fold: one, it provides light and air into the otherwise enclosed interior; two, it provides an exit for smoke from altars, braziers, or torches; three, it reduces the weight of the domeЧand therefore the stresses on the circumference of the dome at the base; and four, and perhaps most interestingly, it serves as a three-dimensional keystone for the dome in order to ensure its stability. Jul 17, †Ј 1 What is the purpose of the oculus in the Pantheon? To provide support to the dome To let light in the interior of the structure To provide support to the massive columns It is strictly a decorative feature CONCEPT The Pantheon 2 Which of the following correctly describes this image? Kore Calf Bearer Peplos.
It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated c. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is cylindrical with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotundawhich is under a coffered concrete domewith a central opening oculus to the sky.
Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome.
It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildingsin large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to " St. Init was visited by over 6 million people. The Pantheon's large circular domed cellawith a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Nevertheless, it became a standard what is the purpose of the oculus in the pantheon when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects.
The only definite pantheon recorded earlier than Agrippa's was at Antioch in Syria, though it is only mentioned by a sixth-century source. Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedesas they do with other temples, and the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses simply "Pantheum".
Certainly the word pantheus or pantheos, could be applicable to individual deities. In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium 31 BCMarcus Agrippa started an impressive building program: the Pantheon was a part of the complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martius in 29Ч19 BC, which included three buildings aligned from south to north: the Baths of Agrippa, the Basilica of Neptune, and the Pantheon. It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with later alterations undertaken, and this was in part because of the Latin inscription on the front of the temple  which reads:.
Lise Hetland argues that the present construction began inunder Trajanfour years after it was destroyed by fire for the second what is the current hindu calendar year Oros. She reexamined Herbert Bloch's paper, which is responsible for the commonly maintained Hadrianic date, and maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study.
Her argument is particularly interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodorus of DamascusTrajan's architect, was the obvious architect. The form of Agrippa's Pantheon is debated. As a result of excavations in the late 19th century, archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani concluded that Agrippa's Pantheon was oriented so that it faced south, in contrast with the current layout that faces north, and that it had a shortened T-shaped plan with the entrance at the base of the "T".
This description was widely accepted until the late 20th century. While more recent archaeological diggings have suggested that Agrippa's building might have had a circular form with a triangular porch, and it might have also faced north, much like the later rebuildings, Ziolkowski complains that their conclusions were based entirely on surmise; according to him, they did not find any new datable material, yet they attributed everything they found to the Agrippan phase, failing to account for the fact that Domitianknown for his enthusiasm for building and known to have restored the Pantheon after 80 AD, might well have been responsible for everything they found.
Ziolkowski argues that Lanciani's initial assessment is still supported by all of the finds to date, including theirs; furthermore he expresses skepticism because the building they describe, "a single building composed of a huge pronaos and a circular cella of the same diameter, linked by a relatively narrow and very short passage much thinner than the current intermediate blockhas no known parallels in classical architecture and would go against everything we know of Roman design principles in general and of Augustan architecture in particular.
The only passages referring to the decoration of the Agrippan Pantheon written by an eyewitness are in Pliny the Elder 's Natural History. From him we know that "the capitals, too, of the pillars, which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, are made of Syracusan bronze",  that "the Pantheon of Agrippa has been decorated by Diogenes of Athens, and the Caryatides, by him, which form the columns of that temple, are looked upon as masterpieces of excellence: the same, too, with the statues that are placed upon the roof,"  and that one of Cleopatra's pearls was cut in half so that each half "might serve as pendants for the ears of Venus, in the Pantheon at Rome".
The Augustan Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in the year 80 AD. Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon, which was burnt again in AD.
The degree to which the decorative scheme should be credited to Hadrian's architects is uncertain. The Historia Augusta says that Hadrian dedicated the Pantheon among other buildings in the name of the original builder Hadr. Agrippa L. Cassius Dioa Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Romewriting approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian.
Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon. Even by the yearthere was uncertainty about the origin of the building and its purpose:. Agrippa finished the construction of the building called the Pantheon. It has this name, perhaps because it received among the images which decorated it the statues of many gods, including Mars and What is the purpose of the oculus in the pantheon but my own opinion of the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it resembles the heavens.
Mary and the Martyrs on 13 May "Another Pope, Boniface, asked the same [Emperor Phocas, in Constantinople] to order that in the old temple called the Pantheon, after the pagan filth was removed, a church should be made, to the holy virgin Mary and all the martyrs, so that the commemoration of the saints would take place henceforth where not gods but demons were formerly worshipped.
The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment, destruction, and the worst of the spoliation that befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early medieval period. Remaining at Rome twelve days he pulled down everything that in ancient times had been made of metal for the ornament of the city, to such an extent that he even stripped off the roof of the church [of the blessed Mary], which at one time was called the Pantheon, and had been how to build hardscape steps in honour of all the gods and was now by the consent of the former rulers the place of all the martyrs; and he took away from there the bronze tiles and sent them with all the other ornaments to Constantinople.
Much fine external marble has been removed over the centuries Ч for example, capitals from some of the pilasters are in the British Museum. In the early 17th century, Urban VIII Barberini tore how to care for a clarinet the bronze ceiling of the portico, and replaced the medieval campanile with the famous twin towers often wrongly attributed to Bernini  called "the ass's ears",  which were not what does tongue sticking out emoticon mean until the late 19th century.
The marble interior has largely survived, although with extensive restoration. Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been the site of several important burials. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carraccithe composer Arcangelo Corelliand the architect Baldassare Peruzzi.
Filippo Brunelleschiamong other architects, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelowith the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Camera for various other works. It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Inthe broad how to become pregnant in second life below the dome with its false windows was "restored," but bore little resemblance to the original.
In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. The Pantheon is in use as a Catholic church. Masses are celebrated there on Sundays and holy days of obligation. Weddings are also held there from time to time. On 23 Julythe Pantheon was established as Cardinal-deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, i. On 26 Maythis deaconry was suppressed to establish the Cardinal Deaconry of S.
Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine. The building was originally approached by a flight of steps. Later construction raised the level what does subliminal perception mean the ground leading to the portico, eliminating these steps.
The pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably how to write a video game script gilded bronze. Holes marking the location of clamps that held the sculpture suggest that its design was likely an eagle within a wreath; ribbons extended from the wreath into the corners of the pediment. Mark Wilson Jones has attempted to explain the design adjustments carried out in relating the porch to the dome, arguing that the Pantheon's porch was originally designed for monolithic granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall weighing about tonnes and capitals 10 Roman feet tall in the Corinthian style.
Instead, after the intended columns failed to arrive, the builders made many awkward adjustments in order to use shafts 40 Roman feet tall and capitals eight Roman feet tall. Alternatively, it has also been argued that the scale of the portico related to the urban design of the space in front of the temple.
Each was They were floated by barge down the Nile River when the water level was high during the spring floods, and then transferred to vessels to cross the Mediterranean Sea to the Roman port of Ostia. There, they were transferred back onto barges and pulled up the Tiber River to Rome. In the walls at the back of the Pantheon's portico are two huge niches, perhaps intended for statues of Augustus Caesar and Agrippa.
The large bronze doors to the cellameasuring how to make my own homepage. The what is a complex integrated circuit weight of the Roman concrete dome is concentrated on a ring of voussoirs 9. The thickness of the dome varies from 6. At its thickest point, how long to deep fry chicken leg aggregate is travertinethen terracotta tiles, then at the very top, tufa and pumiceboth porous light stones.
At the very top, where the dome would be at its weakest and vulnerable to collapse, the oculus actually lightens the load. No tensile test results are available on the concrete used in the Pantheon; however, Cowan discussed tests on ancient concrete from Roman ruins in Libya, which gave a compressive strength of 20 MPa 2, psi. An empirical relationship gives a tensile strength of 1.
The stresses in the dome were found to be substantially reduced by the use of successively less dense aggregate stones, such as small pots or pieces of pumice, in higher layers of the dome.
Hidden chambers engineered within the rotunda form a sophisticated structural system. The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick relieving archesvisible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork. The Pantheon is full of such devices Ч for example, there are relieving arches over the recesses inside Ч but all these arches were hidden by marble facing on the interior and possibly by stone revetment or stucco on the exterior.
The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, It is also substantially larger than earlier domes. All other extant ancient domes were either designed with tie-rodschains and banding or have been retrofitted with such devices to prevent collapse. Though often drawn as a free-standing building, there was a building at its rear which abutted it. While this building helped buttress the rotunda, there was no interior passage from one to the other.
Upon entry, visitors are greeted by an enormous rounded room covered by the how to make a westie cake topper. The oculus at the top of the dome was never covered, allowing rainfall through the ceiling and onto the floor. Because of this, the interior floor is equipped with drains and has been built with an incline of about 30 centimetres 12 in to promote water runoff.
The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. Throughout the day, the light from the oculus moves around this what does pleuritic chest pain feel like in a reverse sundial effect.
During storms, a drainage system below the floor handles the rain that falls through the oculus. The dome features sunken panels coffersin five rings of This evenly spaced layout was difficult to achieve and, it is presumed, had symbolic meaning, either numerical, geometric, or lunar.
Circles and squares form the unifying theme of the interior design. The checkerboard floor pattern contrasts with the concentric circles of square coffers in the dome. Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme.
As a result, the interior decorative zones do not line up. The overall effect is immediate viewer orientation according to the major axis of the building, even though the cylindrical space topped by a hemispherical dome is inherently ambiguous. This discordance has not always been appreciated, and the attic level was redone according to Neoclassical taste in the 18th century.
The present high altars and the apses were commissioned by Pope Clement XI Ч and designed by Alessandro Specchi. Enshrined on the apse above the high altar is a 7th-century Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child, given by Phocas to Pope Boniface IV on the occasion of the dedication of the Pantheon for Christian worship on 13 May The choir was added inand was designed by Luigi Poletti.
The oculus in the Pantheon, Rome. The Pantheon was dedicated in ad as the Church of Santa Maria Rotonda, or Santa Maria ad Martyres, which it remains today. The bronze rosettes and moldings of the ceiling and other bronze embellishments have disappeared over time, and a frieze of stucco decoration was applied to the interior directly beneath the dome in the late Renaissance. The oculus serves as the main source of light inside the Pantheon. The image of the Pantheon is a sight that no one can easily forget. On the exterior, the scale of the building dwarfs all who stand before it. On the interior lies a sight that few are prepared for. Aug 05, †Ј УPrevious studies of the oculus in the Pantheon have emphasized its obvious structural roleЧit lightens the weight of the huge dome, thus reducing the risk of collapseЧand the fact that it .
The current Pantheon is actually the third incarnation on the same site. The first was built by Marcus Agrippa in 27 BC but later burned down, it was reconstructed by Emperor Domition but was struck by lightning and subsequently burned down again. The present version, which has survived almost years, was built by Hadrian between AD.
Hadrian reused the original inscription attributing the building to Agrippa which for a while led to confusion over the exact date of construction. When the Pantheon was built the only source of light was the oculus in the centre of the dome. The opening measures 8. A clever lighting trick is played out on 21 April, the founding date of Rome. At midday the sunlight hits the metal grille above the door, filling the entrance way with light.
This would have illuminated the emperor in ancient times, reflecting his perceived status as a god on earth. Another beautiful effect takes place at Pentecost when rose petals are sprinkled through the oculus after the annual mass. Obviously being open to the elements means it also rains inside the Pantheon but a gently sloping floor and 22 well-hidden holes help the water to drain away. The dome of the Pantheon was originally covered in bronze, which would have made the skyline of the city sparkle in the sunlight.
However throughout the Middle Ages materials were gradually stripped away to be utilised elsewhere. The Pantheon dome, which measures However, to this day it is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world.
Hadrian achieved this by gradually decreasing the thickness and using lighter volcanic materials such as pumice and tufa as it gets higher. The coffers in the ceiling also help to minimize the weight. The building precisely follows the rules of Classical architecture laid out by Vitruvius , creating an aethestically pleasing form. At This gives the Pantheon the impression of balance and harmony.
The Pantheon is the final resting place of several notable people, including the first two kings of unified Italy, Vittorio Emanuele II and his son Umberto I who is placed in front of his wife Queen Margherita of Savoy for whom pizza margherita was named.
The tomb of renowned painter Raphael is also found here. However, in doing so all pagan imagery was removed and replaced with Christian decoration.
The temple was dedicated to the worship of all gods. This is reflected still today in the name of the present-day church which is Santa Maria e Martiri St Mary and all the Martyrs.
Each of the 16 massive granite Corinthian columns at the entrance weighs 60 tons. They were quarried in Egypt, dragged km to the Nile, placed on barges and shipped up the river and transferred to boats to cross the Mediterranean Sea. Once they arrived at the port of Ostia they were retransferred to barges, pulled up the Tiber to Rome and dragged to the Pantheon construction site to be erected to support the portico.
It has perfect dimensions. It is home to some famous historical figures. It is now a church. The name comes from Greek. It used to have bell towers. The columns were transported from Egypt. Give us feedback.