Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC
Linux OS Service ‘winbind’. By admin. Winbind unifies UNIX and Windows NT account management by allowing a UNIX box to become a full member of a NT domain. The service provided by winbind daemon, is called winbind and can be used to resolve user and group information from a Windows NT server, which makes it understandable by UNIX platforms. Windows domains have several different security models, and the security model used in the domain determines the authentication configuration for the local system. For user and server security models, the Winbind configuration requires only the domain (or workgroup) name and the domain controller host names. The --winbindjoin parameter sets the user to use to connect to the Active Directory domain, .
To configure the service on a domain member, see Setting up Samba as a Domain Member. Samba 4. However, this implementation never worked correctly. For this reason, Samba 4. If you run a version of Samba prior to 4. For details, see Updating Samba. For example, setting idmap config lines in the DC smb. If you compile Samba yourself, to enable hosts to receive user and group information from a domain winbindd Winbind, you must create two symbolic links in a directory of the operating system's library path.
If you are are using Samba packages from your distro, there are usually distro packages to do this for you e. To locate the folder:. To enable the name service switch NSS library to make domain users and groups available to the local system:. The service is started automatically as a sub-process of the samba process. To verify, enter:. See Testing the Winbindd Connectivity. Not logged in Create account Log in. Wiki tools Special pages. Page tools. Userpage tools.
The operating system manages file ownerships using IDs. You must manually reset the permissions on files to enable the user to access the files using the new ID.
Additionally, some of the parameters, such as idmap configwill cause the samba service to fail. Currently, the man page does not highlight parameters supported on a DC.
Thus it is suggested that you keep the defaults or only use how to get pregnant if your cycle is irregular parameters described in this section. Do not copy the library to the directory. Otherwise you must replace it manually after every Samba update. You only need to do this if you compiled Samba yourself, otherwise your distro will provide packages to do this for you.
See your distro documentation for which packages to install.
Step 2: Time synchronization...
winbind is a component of the Samba suite of programs that solves the unified logon problem. Winbind uses a UNIX implementation of Microsoft RPC calls, Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAMs), and the name service switch (NSS) to allow Windows NT domain users to appear and operate as UNIX users on a UNIX machine. Sep 21, · Winbind is a program that allows users in a heterogeneous network to log in using workstation s that have either Unix or Windows NT operating system s. The program makes workstations using Unix functional in NT domains, by making NT appear to Estimated Reading Time: 30 secs. DESCRIPTION. This program is part of the samba(7) suite. winbindd is a daemon that provides a number of services to the Name Service Switch capability found in most modern C libraries, to arbitrary applications via PAM and ntlm_auth and to Samba itself. Even if winbind is not used for nsswitch, it still provides a service to smbd, ntlm_auth and the pam_elvalladolid.com PAM module, by .
It is imperative that there be a mechanism for sharing files across UNIX systems and to be able to assign domain user and group ownerships with integrity. This chapter describes the Winbind system, the functionality it provides, how it is configured, and how it works internally. Authentication of user credentials via PAM. Identity resolution via NSS. This is the default when winbind is not used. On an operating system that has been enabled with the NSS, the resolution of user and group information will be accomplished via NSS.
It is well known that UNIX and Microsoft Windows NT have different models for representing user and group information and use different technologies for implementing them. This fact has made it difficult to integrate the two systems in a satisfactory manner. One common solution in use today has been to create identically named user accounts on both the UNIX and Windows systems and use the Samba suite of programs to provide file and print services between the two.
This solution is far from perfect, however, because adding and deleting users on both sets of machines becomes a chore, and two sets of passwords are required both of which can lead to synchronization problems between the UNIX and Windows systems and confusion for users. Ideally, a prospective solution to the unified logon problem would satisfy all the above components without duplication of information on the UNIX machines and without creating additional tasks for the system administrator when maintaining users and groups on either system.
The Winbind system provides a simple and elegant solution to all three components of the unified logon problem. The end result is that whenever a program on the UNIX machine asks the operating system to look up a user or group name, the query will be resolved by asking the NT domain controller for the specified domain to do the lookup.
Because Winbind hooks into the operating system at a low level via the NSS name resolution modules in the C library , this redirection to the NT domain controller is completely transparent. This is necessary because it allows Winbind to determine that redirection to a domain controller is wanted for a particular lookup and which trusted domain is being referenced. This capability solves the problem of synchronizing passwords between systems, since all passwords are stored in a single location on the domain controller.
Winbind is targeted at organizations that have an existing NT-based domain infrastructure into which they wish to put UNIX workstations or servers. Winbind will allow these organizations to deploy UNIX workstations without having to maintain a separate account infrastructure. Another interesting way in which we expect Winbind to be used is as a central part of UNIX-based appliances. Appliances that provide file and print services to Microsoft-based networks will be able to use Winbind to provide seamless integration of the appliance into the domain.
The term foreign SID is often met with the reaction that it is not relevant to a particular environment. The following documents an interchange that took place on the Samba mailing list. It is a good example of the confusion often expressed regarding the use of winbind. Fact: Winbind is needed to handle users who use workstations that are NOT part of the local domain.
I've used Samba with workstations that are not part of my domains lots of times without using winbind. If the Samba server will be accessed from a domain other than the local Samba domain, or if there will be access from machines that are not local domain members, winbind will permit the allocation of UIDs and GIDs from the assigned pool that will keep the identity of the foreign user separate from users that are members of the Samba domain.
This means that winbind is eminently useful in cases where a single Samba PDC on a local network is combined with both domain member and domain non-member workstations.
If winbind is not used, the user george on a Windows workstation that is not a domain member will be able to access the files of a user called george in the account database of the Samba server that is acting as a PDC. A long-running winbindd daemon listens on a UNIX domain socket waiting for requests to arrive. This system is used for most network-related operations between Windows NT machines, including remote management, user authentication, and print spooling.
Although initially this work was done to aid the implementation of Primary Domain Controller PDC functionality in Samba, it has also yielded a body of code that can be used for other purposes.
Winbind uses various MSRPC calls to enumerate domain users and groups and to obtain detailed information about individual users or groups. Using LDAP and Kerberos, a domain member running Winbind can enumerate users and groups in exactly the same way as a Windows x client would, and in so doing provide a much more efficient and effective Winbind implementation. It allows system information such as hostnames, mail aliases, and user information to be resolved from different sources.
For example, a standalone UNIX workstation may resolve system information from a series of flat files stored on the local file system. A networked workstation may first attempt to resolve system information from local files, and then consult an NIS database for user information or a DNS server for hostname information. Using standard UNIX library calls, you can enumerate the users and groups on a UNIX machine running Winbind and see all users and groups in an NT domain plus any trusted domain as though they were local users and groups.
This config line specifies which implementations of that service should be tried and in what order. If the passwd config line is:. The C library will dynamically load each of these modules in turn and call resolver functions within the modules to try to resolve the request.
Once the request is resolved, the C library returns the result to the application. This NSS interface provides an easy way for Winbind to hook into the operating system. The C library will then call Winbind to resolve user and group names. PAMs provide a system for abstracting authentication and authorization technologies.
With a PAM module, it is possible to specify different authentication methods for different system applications without having to recompile these applications. PAM is also useful for implementing a particular policy for authorization. For example, a system administrator may only allow console logins from users stored in the local password file but only allow users resolved from an NIS database to log in over the network.
These users can also change their passwords and have this change take effect directly on the PDC. When an authentication request is made by an application, the PAM code in the C library looks up this control file to determine what modules to load to do the authentication check and in what order. This is slightly different from UNIX, which has a range of numbers that are used to identify users and the same range used to identify groups.
The same process applies for Windows NT groups. The results of this mapping are stored persistently in an ID mapping database held in a tdb database. An active directory system can generate a lot of user and group name lookups. To reduce the network cost of these lookups, Winbind uses a caching scheme based on the SAM sequence number supplied by NT domain controllers.
This sequence number is incremented by Windows NT whenever any user or group information is modified. If a cached entry has expired, the sequence number is requested from the PDC and compared against the sequence number of the cached entry.
If the sequence numbers do not match, then the cached information is discarded and up-to-date information is requested directly from the PDC. This section describes the procedures used to get Winbind up and running. Winbind is capable of providing access and authentication control for Windows Domain users through an NT or Windows x PDC for regular services, such as telnet and ftp, as well for Samba services.
This document is designed for system administrators. Messing with the PAM configuration files can make it nearly impossible to log in to your machine. The latest version of Samba-3 includes a functioning winbindd daemon. Please refer to the main Samba Web page , or better yet, your closest Samba mirror site for instructions on downloading the source code.
To allow domain users the ability to access Samba shares and files, as well as potentially other services provided by your Samba machine, PAM must be set up properly on your machine. In order to compile the Winbind modules, you should have at least the PAM development libraries installed on your system. Before starting, it is probably best to kill off all the Samba-related daemons running on your server. Kill off all smbd , nmbd , and winbindd processes that may be running.
Winbind is built better in Samba if the pam-devel package is also installed. This package includes the header files needed to compile PAM-aware applications. Unfortunately, few systems install the pam-devel libraries that are needed to build PAM-enabled Samba.
Additionally, Samba-3 may auto-install the Winbind files into their correct locations on your system, so before you get too far down the track, be sure to check if the following configuration is really necessary. The libraries needed to run the winbindd daemon through nsswitch need to be copied to their proper locations:. The libraries needed by the winbindd daemon will be automatically entered into the ldconfig cache the next time your system reboots, but it is faster and you do not need to reboot if you do it manually:.
The use of the grep filters the output of the ldconfig command so that we may see proof that this library is indeed recognized by the dynamic link loader. The Sun Solaris dynamic link loader management tool is called crle. The use of this tool is necessary to instruct the dynamic link loader to search directories that contain library files that were not supplied as part of the original operating system platform. When executed without arguments, crle reports the current dynamic link loader configuration.
This is demonstrated here:. A stanza like the following:. This module only supports identification, but there have been reports of success using the standard Winbind PAM module for authentication. Use caution configuring loadable authentication modules, since misconfiguration can make it impossible to log on to the system. Further information on administering the modules can be found in the System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices.
Several parameters are needed in the smb. These are described in more detail in the winbindd 8 man page. My smb. All machines that will participate in domain security should be members of the domain. The process of joining a domain requires the use of the net rpc join command.
This means, of course, that the smbd process must be running on the target domain controller. It is therefore necessary to temporarily start Samba on a PDC so that it can join its own domain. Enter the following command to make the Samba server join the domain, where PDC is the name of your PDC and Administrator is a domain user who has administrative privileges in the domain.
The use of the net rpc join facility is shown here:. Eventually, you will want to modify your Samba startup script to automatically invoke the winbindd daemon when the other parts of Samba start, but it is possible to test out just the Winbind portion first. To start up Winbind services, enter the following command as root:.
Use the appropriate path to the location of the winbindd executable file. You may need to search for the location of Samba files if this is not the location of winbindd on your system. I'm always paranoid and like to make sure the daemon is really running.
This command should produce output like the following if the daemon is running. Now, for the real test, try to get some information about the users on your PDC:.
This should echo back a list of users on your Windows users on your PDC.